According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, parents and guardians should begin taking their child to a pediatrician from birth. It is recommended that infants have regular pediatrics appointments and that children be seen by a pediatrician or primary care doctor annually. These medical doctors are often supported by PAs or Nurse Practitioners. They specialize in disease processes and often spend a lot of time supporting children who have viruses, colds, ear infections or the flu. At annual visits, pediatricians meet for 20-30 minutes and often ask general questions about development. At that time, children may receive vaccines and get a more general check up, and parents may complete some scales to assess general health. If a child has health concerns, a pediatrician may refer the family to a specialist trained in that area.